According to the World Anti-Doping Code, in its first article, doping is defined as the occurrence of “one or more anti-doping rule violations”.
The purpose of Article 2 is to specify the circumstances and conduct which constitute anti-doping rule violations:
I - PRESENCE OF A PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE OR ITS METABOLITES OR MARKERS IN AN ATHLETE’S SAMPLE.
II – USE OR ATTEMPTED USE BY AN ATHLETE OF A PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE OR A PROHIBITED METHOD.
III – EVADING, REFUSING OR FAILING TO SUBMIT TO SAMPLE COLLECTION.
TAMPERING OR ATTEMPTED TAMPERING WITH ANY PART OF DOPING CONTROL.
VI – POSSESSION OF A PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE OR A PROHIBITED METHOD.
VII – TRAFFICKING OR ATTEMPTED TRAFFICKING IN ANY PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE OR PROHIBITED METHOD.
VIII – ADMINISTRATION OR ATTEMPTED ADMINISTRATION TO ANY ATHLETE IN-COMPETITION OF ANY PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE OR PROHIBITED METHOD, OR ADMINISTRATION OR ATTEMPTED ADMINISTRATION TO ANY ATHLETE OUT-OF-COMPETITION OF ANY PROHIBITED SUBSTANCE OR ANY PROHIBITED METHOD THAT IS PROHIBITED OUT-OF-COMPETITION.
IX – COMPLICITY.
X – PROHIBITED ASSOCIATION.
This purely regulatory definition has the merit of being clear within the limits it sets. However, we cannot help thinking that it is incomplete and that doping is a problem that goes beyond the “rules of the game”.
The ethical dimension, even moral, associated with the theme of “doping behaviors” imposes a deep reflection on the excesses of a society which places the production of “performance” as the gold standard of success. Define the doping is also, consequently, to define the sociological soil on which it germinates. The task is therefore of such considerable magnitude that cannot be described in a few lines. However, in order to effectively combat this scourge, it is important to understand and know the mechanisms involved in its genesis.
Thus, the players in the sports world must work day after day to question their own representations on doping and, thereby, renew the motivations and their commitment in the fight against doping.