The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) is an individual electronic file specific to each athlete, in which the results of all anti-doping tests carried out under this program are compiled over a given period.
It is based on the monitoring over time of selected biological variables which indirectly reveal the effects of doping, as opposed to traditional detection of doping through analyzes.
The passport of each athlete contains:
The PBA currently comprises 2 modules
The haematological module:
this aims to detect methods of improving oxygen transport, including the use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents (all the production processes of erythrocytes (red blood cells) in the bone marrow, under the control of erythropoietin or EPO) and all forms of transfusion or manipulation of blood.
The hematology module assesses variables related to blood manipulation through analysis of the athlete's blood sample.
The steroid module:
this aims to detect androgenic or endogenous anabolic steroids and other anabolic agents, including selective androgen receptor modulators.
The steroid module assesses variables related to the intake of anabolic steroids through the analysis of the athlete's urine sample.
Athletes included in the athlete's biological passport program (the 2 modules) are subject to the following checks:
- blood tests carried out in competition, during the period preceding the events and out of competition, in order to establish a haematological profile,
- urine tests conducted in competition, during the period preceding the events and out of competition, in order to establish a steroid profile.
Blood and urine samples can be collected during a competition, during preparation / training periods or even during the offseason.
Athletes may therefore be required to provide blood or urine samples at any time of the year wherever they are.
The fight against doping is based on several strategies including direct testing of athletes, but also evidence gathered in the context of anti-doping rule violations without positive testing. By combining these strategies, and developing others to respond to emerging threats, the fight against doping becomes more effective. In recent years, doping protocols have been increasingly scientifically planned and have taken advantage of the loopholes in traditional protocols.
The PBA complements the traditional doping control process with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of anti-doping programs.